The Astur was a paleohispanic language of Indo-European origin spoken by the ancient Astures in their territory and known by its epigraphic inscriptions, its toponyms and theonyms transmitted by classical sources.
The insertion of Astur in the family of Indo-European languages is commonly accepted today. It trumps the discussion of the possibility of Eusquera-type languages having ever been spoken in Asturian or Cantabrian lands.
Relation To Other Languages:
One of the major problems found when trying to include Astur in a linguistic family is its existence in the sphere of the only two Indo-European languages in the Iberian Peninsula of which we have written accounts: Celtiberian and Lusitanian.
Therefore, while the first shares the innovations that define the Celtic language family, such as the loss of the p- at the beginning of words and between vowels, which is a conditio sine qua non to consider a language Celtic (patēr / atīr), Lusitanian offers characteristics that are incompatible with the knowledge we have of the Celtic language (Schmidt, Witczak), the most obvious being the use of the p-.
The characteristics of Astur lean in either sense, with the use or disuse of the phoneme /P/ being the defining trait that draws Astur closer to Lusitanian or Celtiberian, and ultimately insert it or separate it from the Celtic linguistic roots.
In all, most authors subscribe a Celtic origin for Astur, and nevertheless place it among the neighbouring languages of the Vettons, Cantabrians, Galaicos and Vacceos, in the so-called Western Hispano-Celt subgroup. Among them, Astur has its own peculiarities that give it a unique character.
a) Indo-European Consonants:
*p>p?:This is the trait that offers the most doubts, as there are obvious cases of use as well as ohters in which it was not used. As examples of the first case, progeneo, ‘relative’, ‘next of kin’ < *pro-gen-eio, that in Celtic would be *ro-gen-eio, ‘relative’, or Provesica ‘she who has wisdom’, <*pro-weid-t-ika, where we see the Celtic rovesia, ‘wisdom’. <*ro-weid-t-y-am (Old Irish rofess).
More doubtful examples would be the names of Pedilico or Pitilico, that could be related to the Latin im-petus and petulus , ‘energetic’ and ‘courageous’; and also with the Greek pítulos, ‘shake’, all of them from the root PIE *Pet- (Pokorny: 825-826).
It is also correct to admit that the superlative Paramo < *pr̥h-m̥o, ‘supreme, the first, the highest’, that gives name to high lands is parallel to the Germanic furist < *pr̥h-ist-o ‘prince’, the Hindu paramáḥ and the Italic God Touto Peremusto < *per-m̥-ist-o.
On the contrary, a clear case of the loss of the p- is seen in the people of the Cilurnigos (*kelpurn-i-kos), and maybe in the Onnakos if their name comes from the river Onna ,’Güeña’, to which a Celtic origin is attributed: onna-‘river’ (*pon-na).
Lake Enol < Enolo , through a diminutive (*peno-lo), ‘little lake’, mirrors the Celtic eno, ‘marshland’, which gave its name to the Swiss lake Inn < (*pen-yo). In the area of Valdeorras and bordering with the Galaicos, we find Mount Larouco (*plaro-uko), ‘flattened, plain’, that shows the disuse of the p- from *plh₂-ró (old Irish. lár).
Among the Cantabrians and the tribe of the Orgenomescos it is common to include in their name the term ‘Celtic’ for murder, orgenom (*porge-no). Finally, the toponym Olloniego <*ollonaeko seems to reflect a demonym combining igüau and the name ollonos, ‘big’, in relation to the Old Irish oll that links to the Celtic *ollos, ‘big’, (*polh₁-no)
*bʰ > b: Astur changed the bilabial aspirate Indo-European phoneme /bʰ/, to /b/, which made it more similar to Lusitanian and Celtic, but that separated it from Latin where this group was done in /f/. There are also the examples of the Astur Bergidum, ‘high place’, (*bʰerg-y-dom), or Balaeso, ‘luminous’, (*bʰelā-so).
*dʰ > d: This is a trait that assimilates it to Celtic languages and separates it from Latin, that resolves it in /f/. The ancient Dobra River and Dubra ‘deep river’ (*dʰeubʰ-ro). Vendiricus, ‘cattle with long mane of hair’. (*wendʰi-rics). Andamo, ‘the lowest’, < *n̥dʰ-m̥os, old Latin enfemos ‘infimal’.
*gʷ > b: The occlusive labio-velar /gʷ/ changed to /b/. It coincides thus with Lusitanian, Celtic and Latin. The Astur Bovecius ‘like a bull’ < *gʷou-i-k-y-os (Latin bovis and Celtic bou). Astur bādiom ‘bañu’ <*gʷōdʰ-y-om, célticu común bādiom.
*d > d: Same result as the Western Indo-European branch Dēua, ‘goddess’ (from there, all the streams and rivers named Deva) <* dēiw-eh₂, and maybe the Astur xana , < *dēuana ‘divine’.
*t > t: Same result as the Western Indo-European branch Trittio ‘third’ < *tr̥t-y-os.
*kw > kw: In this way and from a hipothetical *equos, ‘horse’ <*ekwos. we get what is shown on the stone dedicated in dative plural to the equeunos gods (equine), (*ekwe-mn-os). This is a trait that is common to all Paleo-Hispanic languages, as well as Latin and Goidelic Celt, but not Briton that does it in /p/. (ex. Epona < ekwo-na).
*kʷ > p: Prosper and Sevilla defend a vast difference from the previous group, that concords with the Briton in the use of the labio velar in occlusive bilabial /P/. Also Pentovio and Pinta(w)io, ‘fifth’ < *kʷen(kʷ)to-wyo. Modern examples would be the double words constructed parallel to Latin: Pedroveña ‘four borders’ <*kʷettuor-finiam, with Cuadroveña <*quattuor-finiam. And Pintueles < *kʷento-l-is with Quintueles <*quinto-l-is.
*w > w: Same result as the Western Indo-European branch Vernesga ‘Bernesga’ < *wĕrn-ēska, ‘poplar river’, and Vinico ‘familiar’ < *weni-k-os and Venino < *weni-n-os, both based on venia, ‘family’ < *wen-y-eh₂.
b) Treatment of groups:
Group *dy > z: Astur is closew to Celtiberian in the fricative . Also Zoela, ‘celestial’ (*dyow-y-la) has a similar result to the Celtiberian ozeom (* pody-om), since it is not the same case as Celtiberian fricatizes the -d- between vowels while the Astur only does it before y or d. On the opposite side, we find the Lusitanian Ioveai (*dyow-y-ai) and llatín Iouis (*dyow-is) and Iūlius (*dyow-ly-os) that omit the dental sound. It is the trait that distinguishes Astur from Lusitanian
Group *dw > w: The omission coincides with Gallian and becomes clear in Vacoria ‘ she who has two armies’, a proper noun that can be related to the Gallian vocorios, petrucorios and tricorios, ‘with two, four and three armies’. Also, *wacoria must have come from *dwa-coria, where we see the feminine numeral in Briton Celtic uā ‘two’ (*dw ā)
Group *kt > t(t): Common trait in Hispanic Tettonius in Badajoz, (*tekt-on-yos) Vettones (*vekt-on-es) Retugenos in Celtiberia (*rektu-genos < *reigʰ-tu-genos). This result is seen in the Astur Ambatus, ‘servant’ (ambʰi-akt-os) and Dureta ‘twisted’ (*durekta < *du-reigʰ-ta) although in some places in Celtiberia there is the trait of pronouncing it Dureita and in southern areas with the resulting -st- Contestani (*Kom-tekt-o).
Group *ks > s(s): This is a common trait with Celtiberian and insular Celt that separates it from Latin. We can see this in Dessonkos, from where we get the Indo-European *dekswo, ‘south, right’. Astur equates its term with that of the Vaccean city of Dessobriga (*dekswo-bʰr̥gʰa) and with the old Irish dess, ‘south’, unlike the Latin dekster.
Group *tt, *dt, *dd > s(s): Common trait with Celtic and Latin Conso (*komdto < *kom-dʰh₁-to) and Provesica (*Prowess-ika < *Pro-weid-t-ika).
Group *ns > s(s): Cosso (Conso < *komdto < *kom-dʰh1-to). Common trait with the Galaic Asseconia, ‘favourable’ (*n̥s-ek-on-y-a), and the Lusitanian Assaeco ‘favourable’ (*n̥s-a ik-o).
Group nd, mb = nd, mb: Astur kept the origiunal groups ‘ón’ when Celtic began to change them to /nn/ and /mm/. In that way we get Candamios, ‘the brightest’, (*kand-m̥-y-o) and Ambatus ‘servant’ (*ambʰi-akt-os), which should be compared to the Irish cann and ammaig. The element benda ‘peak, beam’ (*bend-a) that appears in some Asturian toponyms Vagabrobenda, Caldobenda, Voligobenda, etc., has to be related to the old Irish benna (*bend-a). ‘peak, beam’. Nevertheless there are some cases of assimilation-nn: Ablonnio ‘proud’ (*aplom-d-y-o).
Group *ln > ll: Common trait with Western Indo-European. In that way we have Collacinos from the city Colla-ka or Colla-ntium where we find the element colla ‘head, hill’ (Latin collis (*kol-nis) Irish coll (<*kol-nos).
Group *pl > bl: Common trait between Common Celtic (with the loss of /p/) and Lusitanian and Latin (with its permanence). In Astur we find Ablonnio ‘proud’ (*aplom-d-y-o) as well as in neighbouring peoples. The Cantabrians Blendios ‘brilliant’ (*s-plēnd-y-os) has to be related to the Latin splendeo ‘shine’, with a silent phoneme; and with the Irish lenstu ‘flash’ (*s-plend-to), where we can see the loss of the occlusive. The same applies to to theVetton city of Bletisama ‘very flat’ (*plet-isam-a), neighbouring with the Astures and relate to the Latin planum and with common Celt Letisama.
Grupu *pr > br: It is seen in Cabruagenigos ‘the people of Cabruadgeno’ (*kapru-ad-gen-os). Again, it is an intermediate trait between common Celt (with the loss of /p/) and Latin (without it) as we can see from the Latin caprī and Celtic caora (*kap-ura).
Assimilation of the series *n…bʰ > n…m: This is a Celtic trait found in the Astur Nimmedus ‘sacred’ < *nebʰe-tos y nel topónimu Nemetobriga ‘sacred city’ < *nebʰe-to-bʰr̥gh-eh₂, the same as the common Celtic nemos ‘sky’ < *nebʰos y nemetom ‘sanctuary’ < *nebʰ-etom
Assimilation of the series *tn > nt y *dʰn > ndʰ: It’s a common trait with Celtic and Latin, found in Astur due to mons Vindios ‘white’ < *win-dʰ-yo < *widʰ-n-yo (Compare with Latin Fundo < *bʰun-dʰo < *bʰudʰ-no).
d) Secondary Consonant Developments:
First degree of Lenition –*k- > -g-: Sonorization of the intervocal silent occlusives. Examples are Bovegio / Bovecio, Vago / Vaco, Degantia < Dekamtia or the change of the suffixes – iko = -igo, Cilurnigom < *Kel(p)urn-ikom, Cabruagenigom < *Kapru-ad-gen-ikom, y -*ako > -ago: Seddiago < *Seddiako.
First Degree of Lenition –*t- > -d-: Sonorization of the dental intervocal silent occlusives. Therefore, Nimmedus < Nemetos, Tridio < Tritio, Do(v)idero / Dovitero, Cludamo / Clutamo, Ambadus / Ambatus, Pedilico / Pitilico.
Loss of the Intervowel fricative: -*w- > -Ø-: It is seen in the egroups e(w)o Deogena ‘daughter of the goddess’ = Devogena, o(w)a: Noanios ‘ninth’ = Novanios (*nown̥-y-os). Group o(w)i: Doidena = Dovidena, Zoela ‘celestial’ = Zovila (*dyowila). Group a(w)e Deo Aerno ‘eternal’ (*aiwe-r-no). Group a(w)i Nailo ‘Nalón, little navia(river)’ (*nawilo), Pintaius = Pintavius, etc. Group u(w)o Cossuo = Cossuvo. Maybe in Noega, Noiga or Noika Ucesia ‘new Ucesia’ If Noega, originates from *nowika (cif. llatín novi-ky-a).
This is a phenomenon that is spread through the north Cantabrian and loses force in the southernmost regions, generating a chain of diphthongs that, as in Galaic, cannot be considered etymological.
Confusion of the labial occlusives b = p: We see this in Borma/Porma ‘Puerma (proper name)’ < *Bʰorm-a, a common trait with Irish (bus/pus ‘lip’), the Briton (broella/proella), Basque (bake/pake ‘peace’) and modern Astur (búcara/púcara ‘pot, pan’). Since this confusion is common to the languages that that share the loss of the initial p- of words, M. Sevilla mentions that it is why the /p/ has also fallen in disuse in Astur. So in the absence of the /p/ there’s is no phonological use for occlusives, and therefore the confusion that ensues.
Absence of betacism -*w- ≠ -b-: If betacism was the response to the insecurity experimented by the speakers due to the /w/ phoneme it is logical that Astur has no signs of this phenomenon. The insecurity is resolved by its disuse. Also the disuse of the fricative and betacism are two phenomena that are caused by the same problem and therefore excluding. Betacism is a southern phenomenon that is seen in the lands of the Vettones and the Lusitanians, following the course of the river Tajo. The different result is seen in the northern Galaic Saurium and the Carpetan Con-Sabura (both from *sawur-).
General Sustaining of the intervowel : -*g- > -g-: The same as the Cantabrians and different from Galaic, ther is the tendency to preserve the /-g-/ before a vowel. We also find Bergidom < *bʰerg-y-dom, as opposewd to the Galaic Beriso. < *bʰerg-y-som; Magilo opposite the Galaic Mailo <*mh₂eg-y-lo; Segimo < *segʰi-s’mo and Segisama < *segʰi-sama, opposite the Galaic Sesma < *sesama < *seisama < *segʰi-sama, etc.
a) Indo-European Vowels:
*a / *h₂e > a. Same result for Celtic and Latin. The Astur ‘abia’, “river” (*h₂eb-y-a) and abris ‘waters’ (*h₂eb-r-is), Celtic abon ‘river’ (*h₂eb-on-a); Latin amnis ‘river’ (*h₂eb-nis). The Astur Attio ‘uncle’ (*h₂ett-y-os); Old Irish. Alio ‘other, second’ (*h₂el-y-os) Old Irish aile.
*ā / *eh₂ > ā with a possible secondary development in ae: In this way, Brigaetium = Brigātium (*bʰr̥gʰ-eh₂-t-y-om). Belaeso = Belāso (*bʰel-eh₂-s-o), and the Celtic suffix -āko which sometimes develops into -aeko.
Nevertheless, De Bernardo mentions that this diphtong ae/ai has its origins in an anticipatory assimilation phenomenon, from suffixes of the type ak-ya > ay-ka: Brigakya (*bʰr̥gʰ-ak-y-a) > Brigaeka / Brigayka.
*e / *h₁e > e. Bergidum ‘high place’ (*bʰh₁erg-y-dom).
*ē / *eh₁ > ī Well known Celtic trait thanks to the example rix ‘re’ in opposition to the Latin rēx and present in the Astur Sīlo ‘portion, offspring’ (*seh₁-lo). Old Irish sīl, and the name Vendiricus ‘hairy bovine’ if the piece ricus were a flexion de *rēcs ‘re’, as Prosper justifies.
*i > i. The Astur Virio ‘masculine’ (*wir-y-os), same as in Latin vir, and Old Irish fer (*wir-os).
*o / *h₃e > o. Borma/Porma ‘Puerma’(proper noun) (*bʰh₃er-ma) and Borines (*bʰh₃er-mi-nis).
*ō / *eh₃ > ā. Again, typical Celtic trait shown in the Astur Baedunia = Bādunia ‘balnearium’ (*gʷōdʰ-un-y-a). In common In common Celtic bādiom. The proper noun Blattia (*bʰlōt-y-eh₂) ‘flourished’ containsthe name of the flower blāto (*bʰlōto). Common Celtic blato; Latin floris (*bʰlō-ris). The Celtic adjective āku ‘fast’ resembles the Indo-European *ōku, and leaves in Astur the name accula,’fast’. It is believed that the name of the rive Sama in Grao could come from the adjective ‘samo’, “calm, tranquil”, the same as sàm, ‘calm, tranquil’ in Irish and that joins the root < *sōmo. It is an isogloss that differentiates Astur from Lusitanian and brings it closer to Celtiberian.
*H > a. Any Indo-European laryngeal (h₁, h₂, h₃) between consonants, represented by H turns to /a/ when they are not both occlusive. Also Elano ‘deer’ (*h₁elHn-o) (Welsh- elain). Ablaidacos ‘very pale’ (ad-bʰlHi-dos). Matugeno ‘well born’ (*mHtu-genos), where we see the Celtic mati ‘good’ (Old Irish- maith).
*ei / *ēi > ē. The same as in common Celtic, which separates Astur from Latin (that reduces the diphtong in /ī/) and Lusitanian (that keeps the old diphtong /ei/). Thereby, the Astur Deva ‘goddess’ (*deiw-a), different from the Latin dīva y lusitanu deibo. The river Esva ‘fast river’ < *eis-wa, Provesica < *pro-weid-t-ika, and the dative Cossue < *kossowei.
*eu / *ēu > ou with a secondary development in u. Lucocadia, ‘white fortress?’ < *lewko-kad-y-a. Clouto y Cluto ‘famosu’ < *klew-tos, Lougeos ‘black, crows?’ < *lewg-y-os. No(w)anio ‘ninth’ < *newn̥-y-os, and the dative Cossue < *kossowei.
c) Vocalisation in 0 degree:
*r̥ before occlussive > ri. The vowel structure in /ri/ of the liquid sound in Zero degree r̥ is a Celtic trait, contrary to Latin that vocalises in /or/, /ur/. The Astur Brigaetium < *bʰr̥gʰ-ā-t-y-om, or Tritio < *tr̥t-y-os.
*n̥ > an. The vowel structure in /an/ of the nasal in 0 degree n̥ is a Celtic trait, contrary to Latin that vocalises in /en/. Also the Astur Arganticaenos developed from argantom ‘silver’ < *argn̥-t-om, contrary to the Latin argentum. We also see it in the river Arganza in Tinéu, that comes fromthe old Argantia ‘silvery’ < *argn̥-t-y-a. The Astur No(w)anio ‘ninth’ < *nown̥-y-os, compared to Latin novenus. Mandica ‘goddess of the foals’ < *mn̥d-y-ka, Galian mandos ‘foal’ < *mn̥d-os, Compared to Latin iovi menzana ‘Jupiter of the sacrifices of horses’ < *mn̥d-y-ono.
*m̥ > am. Same vowel structure in /am/ of the nasal in 0 degree m̥, contrary to the Latin /em/. Also the Astur Degantia `tenth’ < *dekm̥-t-y-a, is an ordinal developed from the numeral decam ‘ten’ < *dekm̥ which is opposed to the Latin decem. The Astur superlativesLos –(is)amos < *is-m̥-os, opposite the Latin -isimus/-isemus.
d) Secondary vowel developments:
Tendency to vowel closure e > In this way Vinicos < *Venikos (this becomes Venica among the Vettones). Nimmedus / Nemetos, Cilurnigos < *kelurnikos, etc.
Change of the post-tonic i > e. This is an exclusive development of Astur, that was noted by Prosper. The author attributes a Celtic origin related to the opening of protoCeltic /i/ when it is not followed by a pallatal vowel: Tillegus = Tillicus (in Dijon), Careca = Carica (in Soria, Ávila and Toledo), Ableca = Ablicos (in Cáceres), Lougeos < *lougios, Parameco < *Paramico, Segeo = Segio, etc.
e(…)ā > a(…)ā. Well known Celtic phenomenon of vocalic harmony called the Law of Joseph and seen in the anthroponym Balaeso ‘luminous’ < *bʰelā-so.
With regards to the mophology or the structure of words, we barely know of examples of -o themed names
-Singular nominative in -os. viros ‘the man’. Common Celtic viros.
-Singular Genitive in -i. viri ‘of the man’. Common Celtic viri.
-Plural Genitive in -om. virom ‘of men’. Common Celtic virom.
The gentilic nouns of the group ablaidacorum, cilurnigorum, viromenigorum, are plural Latin gentilic nouns based on previous Asturian genitives: *Cilurnigom, *Viromenigom, etc. In this way, Medugeno wasn’t referring to the people of the Cilurnigos but the people of a person called Cilurnu.
- Dative singular in -ue. virue ‘for the man’. Common Celtic virui.
- Dative plural in -ubo. virubo ‘for the men’. Common Celtic virobo.
|abiā ‘river’ <*h₂eb-y-eh₂||abā ‘water’ <*h₂eb-eh₂ (v. ir. ab)||amnis ‘river’ <*h₂eb-nis|
|alio ‘another’ <*h₂el-yo||alio ‘another’ <*h₂el(i)yo (v. ir. aile)||alius <*h₂el-yo|
|argantom ‘silver’ <*h₂ergn̥-t-om||argantom ‘silver’ <*h₂ergn̥-t-om (v. ir. arggat)||argentum <*h₂ergn̥-t-om|
|attio ‘uncle’ <*h₂ett-y-os||attio ‘uncle’ <*h₂ett-y-os (v. ir. aite)|
|bādiom ‘bath’ <*gʷōdʰ-y-om||bādiom ‘bath’ <*gʷōdʰ-y-om (v. ir. baidim)|
|bādunia ‘spa’ <*gʷōdʰ-un-y-eh₂|
|benda ‘peak, apex’ < *bh₁end-a||benda ‘peak, apex’ < *bh₁end-a (v. ir. benna)|
|blāto ‘flor’ <*bʰlōto||blāto ‘flower’ <*bʰlōto (v. ir. blāth)||flos,-ris <*bʰlō-s|
|blaido ‘pale’ <*bʰlHi-dos||Illiriu. Blaedarus|
|bleto ‘plain’ <*plh₁et-o||leto ‘plain’ <*(p)lh₁et-o (bre. let)||planta <*plh₂ent-eh₂|
|briga ‘settlement’ <*bʰr̥gʰ-eh₂||briga ‘hill’ <*bʰr̥gʰ-eh₂(v. ir. brig)||for(g)tos <*bʰr̥gʰ-tos|
|kabro ‘goat’ <*kh₂ep-r-o||kaera ‘goat’ <*kh₂e(p)e-r-o (v. ir. cáer) y kabros ‘goat’ <*kh₂ep-r-o (v. ir. gabor)||caper,-pri <*kh₂epe-r|
|kando ‘brilliant’ <*kn̥d-o ó *kh₂end-o||kando ‘brilliant’ <*kn̥d-o ó *kh₂end-o (v. ir. cann)||candeō ‘flash’ <*kh₂end-y-o|
|kloutos ‘famous, well known’ <*kleu-t-os||kloutos ‘famous’ <*kleu-t-os (v. ir. cloth)||in-clutos ‘illustrious’ <*kleu-t-os|
|doubro ‘deep waters <*dʰeubʰ-ro||doubro ‘deep waters’ <*dʰeubʰ-ro (v. ir. dobur)|
|dekam/degam ‘diez’ <*dekm̥||dekam ‘ten’ <*dekm̥ (v. ir. deich)||decem <*dekm̥|
|dekamtos/degamtos ‘tenth’ <*dekm̥-tos||dekametos ‘ten’ <*dekm̥(e)-tos (v. ir. dechmad)||decimus <*dekm̥-os.|
|desso ‘right, south’ <*deks-wo||desso ‘right, south’ <*deks-wo (v. ir. dess)||dexter <*deks-te-r|
|dēvā ‘goddess’ <*dēiw-eh₂||dēva ‘goddess’ <*dēiw-eh₂ (v. ir. día)||dīva <*dēiw-eh₂|
|dēvanā ‘divine’ <*dēiw-an-eh₂||dēvona ‘divine’ <*dēiw-on-eh₂||dīviana ‘Dīana’ <*dēiw-y-an-eh₂|
|elano ‘deer’ <*h₁elHn-o||elano ‘deer’ <*h₁elHn-o (gal. elain)|
|ekuos ‘horse’ <*h₁ekwos||ekuos ‘horse’ <*h₁ekwos (v. ir. ech)||equus <*h₁ekwos|
|kel(p)urno ‘bucket’ <*kh₁elp-ur-nos||kelurno ‘bucket’ <*kh₁elp-ur-nos (v. ir. cilurnn)||calpar <*kalp-ari?|
|korio ‘troop, army’ <*kor-y-os||korio ‘troop, army’ <*kor-y-os (v. ir. cuire)|
|lema ‘alder’ <*lh₁em-eh₂||lema ‘alder’ <*lh₁em-eh₂||ulmus <*l̥m-os|
|lougo ‘dark’ <*leug-os||lougo ‘raven’ <*leug-os|
|loukā ‘fire, light’ <*leuk-eh₂||louka ‘fire, light’ <*leuk-eh₂(gal. llug)||lux,-ucis/luceo <*leuk-is/ <*leuk-e-y-o|
|magilos ‘noble, prince’ <*mh₁eg-y-los||magalos ‘noble’ <*<*mh₁eg-H-los (v. ir. mal)|
|mandika ‘mare’ ? <*mn̥d-y-ka|
|mando ‘foal’ <*mn̥d-os||mando ‘foal’ <*mn̥d-os||menzana (iovi) <*mn̥d-y-on-o|
|matu ‘good’ <*mHt-u||mati ‘good’ <*<*mHt-i(v. ir. maith)||mānus <*meh₂n-us|
|nāvā ‘boat’ <*neh₂u-eh₂||nāvā ‘boat’ <*neh₂u-eh₂(v. ir. nau)||nāvis <*neh₂u-is|
|nāvilo ‘sailable’ <*neh₂u-y-lo|
|nemetos ‘sacred’ <*nebʰ-etos||nemetom ‘sanctuary’ <*nebʰ-etom (v. ir. nemed)||nemus <*nebʰ-os|
|novan ‘nueve’ <*novm̥||novan ‘nine’ <*novm̥ (v. ir. noi)||novem <*novm̥|
|novanios ninth’ <*novm̥-y-os||novametos ‘ninth’ <*novm̥(e)-tos (v. ir. nomad)||novenus <*novm̥-y-os|
|(p)eno ‘lake’ <*(p)eno||eno ‘lake’ y enakos ‘quagmire’ (v. ir. enach) <*(p)eno||Panonnia ‘land of lakes’ (Illyriu)|
|progeneio ‘family’ <*pro-gene-y-o||rogeneies ‘family’ <*(p)ro-gene-y-es||progenies <*pro-gen-y-es|
|provesa ‘knowledge’ <*pro-weid-t-am||rovesa ‘knowledge’ <*(p)ro-weid-t-am (v. ir. rofess)|
|sego ‘beat’ <*sh₁egʰ-o||sego ‘beat’ <*sh₁egʰ-o (v. ir. seg)|
|segio ‘strong’ <*sh₁egʰ-y-o|
|sīlo ‘son, seed’ <*seh₁-lo||sīlo ‘son, seed’ <*seh₁-lo (v. ir. sil)|
|trīs ‘three’ <*treh₁s||trīs ‘three’ <*treh₁s (v. ir. tri)||trēs <*treh₁s|
|tritio ‘third’ <*tr̥t-y-os||tritio ‘third’ <*tr̥t-y-os (gal. trydydd)||tertius <*tert-y-os|
|verna ‘black poplar’ (en Vernesga) <*vh₁ern-eh₂||verna ‘black poplar’ <*vh₁ern-eh₂(o. ir. fern)|
|vindo ‘white’ <*win-dʰ-o||vindo ‘white’ <*win-dʰ-o (o. ir. find)|
|vindio ‘’ <*win-dʰ-y-o|
|virio ‘homiegu’ <*wir-y-os||viro ‘man’ <*wir-os (o. ir. fer)||vir <*wir-os|
|vā ‘femenine of two’ <*dwā||vā ‘two’ <*dwā|
|vo ‘masculín ‘of two’ <*dwo||vo ‘two’ <*dwō (gal. gwo)||duo ‘two’ <*dwō|
Translation to English.
Juan Luis García Alonso “Lenguas indoeuropeas prerromanas en el Noroeste Peninsular”: In the lands of the Hispanic northwest the Indo-European linguistic prints are practically inexistent or at least it is not easy to demonstrate their presence with a reasonable security. The discussion is another one: which is the spoken Indo-European language or languages that was spoken here before the Romans arrived. Palaeohispánica 9 pxs. 163-174 (2009)
Antonio Tovar “La inscripción del Cabeço das Fráguas y la lengua de los lusitanoa” Actas. Salamanca: Lusitanian and Celtiberian appear as two Indo-European languages whose remains are clearly signaled out. We still believe that the other Indo-European languages of the Iberian Peninsula gravitate towards one or the other of these languages (...)
K.H. Schmidt “A Contribution to the Identification of Lusitanian” Actas del III Coloquio sobre Lenguas y Culturas Paleohispánicas. Salamanca, 1985, pp. 319-341.
Patrizia de Bernardo Stempel “Centro y áreas laterales: La formación del celtibérico sobre el fondo del celta peninsular hispano” Palaeohispánica 2 (2002)
Martín Sevilla “Topónimos asturianos de origen indoeuropeo prelatino” BIDEA 96 (pxs 153-189) Uviéu 1979.
Luis García Alonso “Etnonimia antigua de España” Palaeohispánica 6 (2006)
(…) the evolution of the sequence d and v doesn’t create an affricate, but a simplification of the group: dyV- > yV-. Thus, IOVEAI < *dyew-(i)yo-. In this way, the reconstructed form for Zoela would show a non Lusitanian phonetic treatment, but an identical one to that posed by Patrizia de Bernardo for Celtiberic.
Francisco Villar “Vascos, celtas e indoeuropeos: genes y lenguas” Acta Salmanticensia Estudios filológicos. V. 307. Ed. Universidad de Salamanca (2005)
Donald MacAulay “The Celtic languages” (Px. 3) Ed: Cambridge University Press (1992)
Blanca M. Prosper “Lenguas y religiones prerromanas del occidente de la Península Ibérica” (Px. 158). Ed. Universidad de Salamanca (2002)
Xavier Delamarre “Les noms du compagnon en gaulois” (Px. 47) Studia Celtica Finnica nº II, Ed: Finnish society for celtic studies (2005) La diphtongue /oi/ est certainement secondaire en gaulois tardif, cf. Doiros qui doit être pour *Duwiros ‘Mauvais Homme’, en voie de disparition comme on l’observe dans les doublets Doviccus /Doeccus, Divo/Dio,Bivo/Bio,Novio/Noio….
Mijail Zelikov “El aspecto fonético en el problema de las coincidencias vasco-celtas” Ed: University of Saint Petersburg. 2004. Another common phenomenon, the loss of ‘p’ that affected fundamentally the initial position in words of Basque and Celtic is also admitted.”
Martín Sevilla “Los hidrónimos porma/puerma” Archivum: Magazine of the Filological Faculty, (Px. 689-694). Ed. Universidá d’Uviéu. (1981)
Blanca María Prósper “Varia céltica epigraphica” Palaeohispanica 7. (Px. 161-174) 2007 it doesn’t produce the loss of the/g/ in the Asturian zone, although it does among the Galaic Celts.
This trait gives force to the arguments that indicate a Galaic origin of the Celtic settlement of Beriso, from the tribe of the Cabarcos, according to the stone found in Salas (CIL II 5739).
Patrizia de Bernardo Stempel “Grafemica e fonologia del Celtiberico: Una nuova legge fonetica che genera dittonghi” (px. 319-334) Religión, lengua y cultura prerromanas de Hispania (2001)
Blanca María Prósper “New Lusitanian inscription from Portoalegre” Emerita. Revista de Lingüística y Filología Clásica. (px. 23) 2009.
Xavier Delamarre “Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise” Ed. Errance, París 2003 (px.144)
Martín Sevilla “Asturiano samecer ‘calm, tranquilise’ and the hydronyms Sama” Archivum, Magazine of the Filological Faculty, Tomes L-LI, Un.de Oviedo, (pxs.429-431) 2000-2001.
Juan José Moralejo “Hidrónimos Galaicos con sufijo ‘’–antia’’. Palaeohispanica 9. (Px. 837-860) 2005
(Prosper 2002. Px. 140) it seems possible, then, that the pronunciation of /i/ in intervocalic posotonic position was /e/
Francisco Marco Simón “Deis Equeunu(bo)”. Minutes from the VII congress on Paleohispanic languages and cultures Px. 481-490. Zaragoza 1997.
Photographs and illustrations:
1ª.- Stone of Medúgeno, from the clan of the Cilúrnigos, found in Xixón – Asturies. Source: Wikipedia.
2ª.- Stone of Botiu, son of Matugeno, found in the lands at Zoela near Bragança. Source: wikimedia Asturies
3ª.- Celtic settlement Nóega. Author: Marcos Morilla. Source: turismoasturias,com
4ª.- Stag in Asturies during mating season. Author:J. L. Cerejido. Source: Agencia EFE.
5.- Flag of the Celtic Nations flying in Xixón.