FELÍZ SOLSTICIU D’IVIERNU.

Mañán sedrá’l Solsticiu d’Iviernu. Esti ye un momentu de reflexón, de fonrar la memoria los nuesos ancestros, d’allegrase pol renacimientu de Lug ya con él la renovación de la vida.

wheelofyear

Ente nos los celtes, ye’l momentu d’ofrendar a nuesos árbores sagraos, de quemar el tueru nadaliegu ya esparder les sos povises pola güerta o la viesca ; d’aconceyar cola familia faciendo alcordanza de los que ya nun tan con nos n’esti mundiu emperu espérennos en Letavia, de xintar a la salú de toos, los vivos ya los muertos.

collao-jermoso

Dende la Lliga Celta d’Asturies, ya personalmente de mio, deséyovos a toos ya toes un felíz Solsticiu d’Iviernu, que la llume de Lug vos guíe…

Fernán Morán, Presidente de la Lliga Celta d’Asturies.

CREYENCIES YA SUPERSITICIONES ASTURIANES: L’AGÜEYAMIENTU O MAL DE GÜEYU.

L’agüeyamientu pasa, como ye lóxicu, por distintes fases: l’agüeyamientu puramente dichu, qu’efectúen bruxes o persones embruxaes, y que puede realizase por envidia y por cobicia; la prevención del mal, por aciu l’usu d’amuletos, y l’enunciación de ciertes frases; los síntomes de qu’una persona o animal ta afectáu del mal; y d’últimes los actos pal so sanamientu, pasando l’agua, utilizando’l alicornio, etc.

cigua-dacebache-2

Pa prevenir el agüeyamientu, nos bautismos asturianos la madrina solía asitiar al afiáu, como amuletos, diversos oxetos: los Evanxelios; supuestes reliquies na cintura del neñu; la medaya de San Benitu; la cigüa d’acebache na muñeca. Diz Caveda en “El neñu enfermu”:

Mañana sin falta
si es que llego allá
con agua bendita
lu tengo asperxar,
y ponei la cigüa
antes de mamar,
y de San Benito
se i ha de colgar,
la regla que fora
del Padre Bastián.

Puede ocasionar agüeyamientu el ponderar a la criatura, sin decir complementariamente: “Dios lu guarde”.

Más que una bruja-bruja se estima que el agüeyamientu lo ocasiona alguna mujer vieja, envidiosa. Lo cuenta el mismo Caveda cuando pone en voz de una madre los lamentos por la enfermedad de su hijo:

Anxelín hermosu,
vixu de to má
que penes i dierens
si Dios te llevás
¡Probetín! ¿Qué tienes?
¿Qué te fexo mal?

¿Si lu agüeyara
la vieya Rosenda
del otru llugar?
Des que allá na cuerra
lu diera en besar,
poquiñín y a pocu
morriéndose va,
dalgún maleficiu
la maldita i fai,
que diz qu’a Sevilla
los dábados va.
Y qu’anda de noche
chupando a los ñeños
que gordos están.

Y nun ye namái a los neños, sinón tamién, especialmente, a les vaques, por suponer un dañu grave’l que la vaca enferme; dizse que la vaca, entós, en llugar de lleche da sangre. Esti ye un actu pa deagüeyar una vaca nos Corros, nel conceyu de L.luarca:

Ujánonte dos,
desojánonte tres,
San Pedro y San Pablo
y el glorioso San Andrés.
Si lu tienes en la cabeza
sáquetelu Santa Lucrecia,
si lu tienes en el corazón,
San Martín que es un buen varón,
sáquetelu Santa María.

Yera bonu pa desagüeyar, asitiar na parte cimera de la puerta la corte un pantalón esparnau, y dempués facíase salir a la vaca pasando per embaxu’l pantalón, que darréu quemábase. La vaca tenía de salir, nun entrar, porque nesti casu creyíase qu’entraba la bruxería na corte.

3a2

Dacuando creíase que pola mor del mal la vaca negar a dar lleche, y entós rogábase-y con rimas cariñoses:

Dalo, pequeñina,
que son de tenral,
que las de becerro
no lo quieren dar;
dalo, garbosina,
dámelo tú a mí,
que el rey de los cielos
te lo dará a tí.

Créyese que’l mal de güeyu, productor del agüeyamientu, ta solamente nun güeyu, y non nos dos. Per eso cúntase que daquién que sabía que padecía tal propensión, cuando vía pasar vaques, miraba primeru con un güeyu, ya depués col otru, y asina podía comprobar en cualu de los dos tenía la propiedá malina.

Esistía la posibilidá de saber si una persona taba agüeyada, por aciu l’estáu del so pelu, o siquier eso deduzse de la silguiente copla:

Marica, si estás aojada,
dame pelo de tu trenza,
porque lo quiero mandar
a una desaojadera.

Mientres unos cunten que delles persones tienen esta condición malina innatamente, otros creen qu’ello ye involuntariu, y que nun deseyen portar el poder nocivu de so; tou ello desaguó’n considerar a ciertes persones como ciguaes.

Otra amuesa de ser agüeyau ye cuando ruempese la cigua que punxerase al neñu como amuletu preservador. Los amuletos qu’asitiaronse al neñu nel bautismu, ente les sos ropes, casu de que fuera agüeyau, aquéllos aumentaríen de tamañu, enfusaríen nel corazón y mataríen a la criatura.

L’Agüeyamientu suelse exorcizase por aciu d’amuletos, campanielles, cruces, una castaña india -cuando “esplote”, pasó’l agüeyamientu-, bolses con distintos elementos, cigües… Agora vamos recordar dalgunu más, y sobremanera’l métodu usáu como fundamental, esto ye, lo que se llama “pasar l’agua”.

Rellaciónense delles variantes d’esti procedimientu. Asítiase una prenda del neñu al llau d’un recipiente cola agua; la muyer que pasa l’agua suelta’l cuernu -de venáu- sobre dicha agua; fórmense güeyos -burbuyes-; la muyer, mientres reza fai cruces sobre’l recipiente; termina diciendo qu’anque formarense güeyos, el neñu nun taba agüeyau, sinón acobiciáu, ya que la clase de güeyos manifestaba esto.

15659203-cuerno-de-ciervo-foto-de-archivo

Nun recipiente introduzse un cachu d’estil de venáu, fórmense burbuyes; faise lo mesmo pela nueche, cuando apaez la lluna, al empar que se pronuncien ciertes frases, l’agua adquier el poder p’a otru día bebelo la persona enferma.

Delles muyeres que tienen el alicornio, vienden l’agua que sirven d’él, y que consideren infalible contra’l agüeyamientu.

Sedría interesante buscar les relaciones ente esta pallabra qu’emplegase n’Asturies -alicornio- pa tales menesteres de desagüeyamientu, y l’Unicorniu, o meyor, el cuernu del unicorniu, animal mitolóxicu, con cuerpu de caballu y un cuernu na frente, al que considerabase con poder antitóxico, amás de simbolizar la castidad.

Otru métodu recoyíu por Cabal: xuntar nun caciplu unos granitos de pólvora, suelas de zapatos vieyos, cañes de lloréu, panojas esbillaes y escrementos de gochu…; enciéndense, aspírase’l vaho, y terminóse l’agüeyamientu…

Ye significativu que n’Escocia esiste tamién y bien enraigonada la creyencia del Evil Eye (agüeyamientu). Los granxeros y llabradores vistense de colloráu pa evitalo y asitien cintes coloraes nel ganáu col mesmu propósitu.

Fonte:

“Supersiticiones y creencias de Asturias”; Luciano Castañón; Ayalga Ediciones, 1976.

“Scottish Folk-Lore and Folk life. Studies in Race, Culture and Tradition”; Donald A. Mackenzie.

Torna a l’asturianu:

Fernán Morán.

Semeyes ya illustraciones:

1ª.- Cigüa d’azabache asturiana. Fonte: google. Autor/a: desconocíu/a.

2ª.- Medalla de San Benito.

3ª.- Cuernu de venau.

CELTIC BASE OF ASTURIAN LANGUAGE (PART II).

AH! and also A!

In Asturian, this pan-Asturian  interjection is used to accompany vocatives in daily language, with the meaning of ‘Listen!’:

‘¡Ah, Tomás!’, ‘¡Ah, Susu!’, ‘¡Ah, ne!’ (Hey, girl!), ‘¡Ah, nin!’ (Hey, man!), etc.

This same linguistic phenomenon of invocating happens in modern Irish Celtic with the same interjection: A!

‘A Tomas!’, ‘A Iossa!’, ‘ A vean!’, ‘A gasúr!’, etc.

Needless to say that this is an archaism of the Asturian language, common to Irish Celtic.

B3075

BUAL< gwou-al, which means “the place of the cattle”.

Irish Celtic of güei: bo < gwou-, which means ‘cow’ or ‘cattle’.

This  translation of Bual shouldn’t be surprising, as the people of this area of Asturies are and were cattle farmers of Celtic origin, as is proven by the Celtic settlement of Cuaña.

BUSTARIEGA<gwousta, which means ‘place of the cattle’. There are many toponyms of this type (<gwou-) in the mountainous region of the Pésicos, naming the place where the cattle grazes and shelters itself.:

Bustavernego (<gwousta-) ‘place where the cattle stay in winter’.

Other examples: Buspilde, Buxonte, Buxane, Busmargal, etc.

DOBRA1

DOIRAS <douras<dour-, which means ‘water’, ‘stream’

Modern Briton Celtic: dour, which means ‘water’, ‘stream’.

Modern Irish Celtic: dobur<dour, which means ‘water’, ‘stream’.

Modern Eastern Asturiano: Dobra<doura<dour-, which means ‘water’, ‘stream’.

Welsh Celtic: dwrf<dour, which means ‘water’, ‘stream’.

Modern English hydronym: Dover <dour, which means ‘water’, ‘stream’.

Only this base, ‘dour-‘ , ‘water’, ‘stream’ exists in the Western periphery of European Celtic languages and in Asturian Celtic, as well as in Castilian Celtic.
Source:

” The Linguistic Pre-Roman Asturiano”; Manuel G. Menéndez Nadaya.

Asturian to English translation:

Martisa Solares.

Photos:

1st: Photograph of the Asturian village of Bual, in the council of the same name.

2nd.- Photograph of the Doiras river in Asturies.

 

ETIMOLOGY OF ASTURIES. THE MEANING OF OUR NAME.

There were diverse interpretative hypothesis with regards to the name of our nation, Asturias. It is logical for there to be a clear interest in a name whose remote origins are obscured by the exiguity of dependable  and objective data. Many believe in a pre-Indo European origin, Etruscan according to Schulze and others (Shulten 426, p. 87), based on the Mediterranean expansion of toponyms and anthroponyms  that present a  linguistic resemblance with Asturias; as well as the possibility of confirming a certain familiarity with some Pyrenaic or Basque words. This is believed to be so since Humboldt and authors such as Hubschmid (59p. 471;106) admit an explanation of this, as in the compound AITZ-URA, ‘water that flows from the rocks’ ; ‘asta’ (rock, ledge), ‘ura’ (water). From this explanation we can derive that the name Asturias refers to a land with many mountain springs (cf 218; 102 p 25; ; 361 p. 187; 391 p.85; 387 p. 391).

The truth is that many different explanations can be found. Thus, if we believe the familiarity with Basque, we see that there are other words that have a certain phonetic similarity, like ‘asto’ (donkey) or ‘astorki’ (sainfoin)¸or also in certain surnames (103 nº 104, 105, 201). If we analyse it, they are good approximations  because Asturias is a nation of water, a nation of rocks, and of course the nation that is proud of its horse, the Asturcón, ‘the horse of the Astures’.

But it doesn’t seem that the name comes from these or from simplification. There are some who think differently, perhaps with less knowledge, that Asturias could be explained from Indo European elements like AST(H), ‘hard’; or even with the Latin ASTRUM or ÁSTUR ‘eagle’’ (104 p. 342; 185 p. 219).

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In recent times, the Celtic origin of the name was brought to light due to the expansion of hydronyms, which are  perhaps related, from the south of Great Britain and areas that currently speak German. It is interesting to see how many hydronyms of the same type as ‘Stura’  in the Italian region of Piamonte, where we find the name of the city Estil. (cf. 406 y 407).

Ancient Documentation

To make  etymological suggestions, it is convenient to consult the Ancient and Medieval data which we have, as this is the way to make our theory more credible. In our case, we take as a reference ÁSTURES, ÁSTURIA, ÁSTURA, three elements that appear in the documents of the Roman conquest and which refer, respectively, to a people, the country they inhabit and an important river that flows through their lands. We don’t know if Ástures is previous to Astura or viceversa but there is no question as to their linguistic interrelation.

We shall begin our observations with the name of the river. Until now, the most convincing theories tie ÁSTURA with the river Esla (León) as there are no serious objections from either the historical, the geographical or the linguistic point of view. This implies that we have to start from a word stressed on the third-to-last syllable, that is Ástura. They would also probably pronounce Ástures to speak of the primitive inhabitants of their riversides. (cf. 106; 59 p. 47l; 391 p. 85).

The name of Ástures was extensive not only to the dwellers of the flat land or Augustans, but also to the people on the northern side of the mountains, that is the Ástures from the other side of the mountains (cf. 197), similar to the Suriegos  that occupied a land almost as big as the whole of modern Asturias. The Ástures, apart from the specifications that can be made (cf. 427 p. 29), lived between the sea and the Douro or Duero river, in a vast country of about 20.000 square kilometres. Accoeding to Schulten, it would extend across the majority of the  modern Asturian Principality and also the provinces of León (form the Cea towards the west), the northwestern area of Zamora, the northeastern strip of Portugal, eastern third of Ourense and eastern corner of Lugo, near Ferruchar do Caurel.

Asturia2

The name of the Ástures, plural of Ástur, is the reason the Romans called their main southern settlement ASTURICA (Augusta), ‘urbs magnifica’ according to Pliny (Nat. Hist.III, 28), where the name evolved to the modern Astorga. This manifests another linguistic input: the tonic ‘o’ was short because only in this way can we justify the /o/  of the modern toponym.

 It is also documented from ancient times what appears to be a formation based on Ástura, which is ASTURIA, the land of the Ástures. In the Middle Ages, the expression becomes plural, ASTURIAS, as a reference that is not only ethnic but also geographical and political, given the important expansion of the primitive Asturia and the kingdom it brings forth.

The names of ‘Asturias de Oviedo’, ‘Asturias de Santillana’ in the west of the modern Cantabria; also ‘Asturias de Transmiera’, more to the east. In our days the name Asturias designates the land that makes up the Principality of Asturias, that coincides in its eastern and western borders with the Medieval circumscription that are explicitly mentioned in the document ‘Inter Oue et Deua’, that is, ‘Between the Eo and the Deva’. The southern borders of Asturias were roughly drawn by geography, but mainly decided by the interests of civil and religious administrations, which determined the reduction of the Diocesis of Oviedo to its current limits due to the agreement of 1954 between the Spanish state and the Vatican.

Another question posed is knowing if the macro-toponym  Asturias derives through the popular and documented old ASTURIA or through a more cultured route. Our reasoning  leans in the following direction: if the tonic ‘o’ is short as we have just said, ASTURIA(S) should have to have evolved to Astoria(s) and not to Asturia(s), and in that case the expression Asturias would be a cultism and so evolved apart from the old popular way.

In opposition to this, we could also say that Asturia(s) is foreseeable popular evolution due to the suffix ‘-URIUM’  which we find in the  historical evolution of our language. Effectively, this suffix has a considerably insecure historical evolution, as we can see in the triple result of a similar word, the Latin STRATORIUM> estandoriu / estadoiru —> estadueñu ‘abargana’/ estadoiru —> estadui(r)o —> esta(n)duyu.

This same evolutionary insecurity is what we should find in the modern result of the old ASTURIA(S):

a.) Astoria(s) or Estoria(s), not documented by us, but what is certain is its equivalent, the hydronym of Lena, La Fonte les Istodias, ‘the fountain of waters’.

b) Astoira(s) or Estoira(s) —> Astoera —> Astuera, name of a creek and farm in Lastres (Colunga).

c.) Asturias, next to its equivalent Estudiar ‘The Waters’, a fountain in Llanes; and perhaps also together with what could be similar, the abundation Llaguna Asturiega, to the west of Santa María del Pandorial in the lands that belonged to the Augustan Ástures.

This triple behaviour (Les Istodias/ Astuera/ Estudiar) concords with the diachrony of the Asturian language and allows us to admit that Asturias can be considered a popular evolution, although coinciding with those that a more cultured explanation would offer. These diverse alternatives explain the names given to the natives of the land, the Asturianos, and their toponymic expansion to some repopulated territories like Asturianos in Palencia (345 p. 156), Asturianos, in Senabria in a  document dating from 977 (12 p. 442). We also have Estorâos, two parrishes and a hamlet in Portugal (Piel: RPF 4, 195 1, pp. 197), which demands to start from the form esto(i)ranos. Fianally, Astureses in Ourense is formed from and adjective ended in -ENSE.

The Problem of Estora and Estorâos:

Together with the aforementioned proparoxytone ( third-to-last accented)  AST(O)RA> Esla, we could feel inclined to admit a paroxytone or oxytone expression, as it would seem to be what the Asturian toponym Estora which names  some fields on the banks of the River Sella, next to the church of Santianes de Molenes de l’Agua, Ribadesella suggests. This church of Santianes is known as ‘ Sancti Iohannis de Stola’ in a document from 1147 (MSVO) and that appears again as ‘Stora’ in 1153 (MSVM p.8). The tonic vowel manifests once more the shortness of the etymological ‘o’. Therefore, it is better to admit that Estora must be interpreted as another derivation of ASTURIA >Esto(i)ra, with accent on the velar such as is demanded by the ‘i’, later disappeared. That would be the origin of Estora, seen today in the east of Asturias, and the ethnonym  Estorâos seen in Portugal.

Estil and Ura:

The documents prove, on the other hand, the existence of two equivalent phonic variants,ast- and est-, that are not a serious objection to our work.

It seems as we have said that semantically ASTURA refers originally to a hydronomic reality; but what is not clear is if the reference to water is only due to what would be a second element of the composition, -URA, or what could be the first, ESTIL-, or perhaps a combination of both. Our observation allows us to affirm:

a.) There is a series of toponyms, Asturian and non- Asturian, that seem to have a pre-Roman element, UR ‘water’. They are toponyms such as Valledor (Al), Río Órbigo (León), Ponte Orugu (Babia), Uría (Ib), and perhaps some like Ouru, etc. (ch.6).

b.) There are toponyms that have the element ESTIL and that also seem to refer to water: They are names like Rebaste, ‘the river estil’, creek that derives from Valdedios in Villaviciosa; ‘teh fountain of Vardasta’ on the border of the monastery of Fano (Xx); maybe Valdabasta (León), near the Esla (cf. 258).

c.) There are toponyms in which it appears that the ensemble ASTURA is used to refer to water. In this case -URA would be simply an old suffix that, as it occurs with the atonal -ara, -ana, would only serve to complete the phonic significance of the primitive AST-.

In favour of the hydronimic interpretation of the ÁSTUR(I)A ensemble is the translation that we received when the translation of Santianes de Molenes de l’Agua was generalised as the correct form of ‘Sancti Johannis de Stola’. In the same sense, we have the aforementioned La Fonte les Istodias (Ll) and Estudiar (Lln) that are unequivocably hydromyms and that can  also be translated as ‘water’.

5.0

The Nation of Water, The Nation of the Ástures:

As we explained (cf. 258 ), we believe that the hydronimic element ÁSTUR(I)A is found both to the north and to the south of the old nation of the Ástures, where the ancient Estora and the Esla were born. It is interesting to note that on the eastern borders of the Ástures, both north and south of the mountains, two rivers have the name of the same people, perhaps because this people receives its name from them. The Esla to the south and the Estora (that is, the Sella) to the north, were totally Asturian rivers and for that reason explainable in the language of the Ástures. Their waters were, for those that came from the east, the first  notable bodies of water to be found in the land of the Ástures.

What is also testified to the north is that the oldest name known of that river was possibly the pre-Indoeuropean ASTURIA (> Estora), to which the Indo-European SALIA (>Sella), and, although unsuccessfully, the Latin FLUVIUM, ‘river’, (> Llovio). The contemporary Estora, Sella and Llovio are because of this an interesting reference that speak of the great linguistic entity that our nation possesses.

Source:

“Toponimia asturiana”;  Xose Lluís García Arias; Editorial Prensa Asturiana.

Traslation Asturian – English:

Maritsa Solares.

Maps and illustrations:

1st.- Map of the tributaries of the Douro River, including the Esla river. Author: unknow. Source: Google.

2nd.- Map of the site of Asturia in pre-Roman times. Author: unknow. Source: Google.

3rd.- Map of the Asturies of Uviéu and the Asturies of Santillana in 17th century. Author: Jansonio in 1653.

TRAXE’L PAÍS FEMENÍN.

Los más característicos son el traxe llaniscu, el vaqueiru ya’l de la zona central.

El llaniscu, que ye’l más ricu, consta de refaxu, cotilla, blusa, mandil, pañuelu y medies. Suelen usase zapatos de charol.

El traxe vaqueiru ye quiciabes el meyor calteníu y menos sofisticáu. Con él vístense angüañu los novios que contraen matrimoniu nel Festival de la Vaqueirada d’Aristébano, y toos aquellos qu’esi día siéntense braeramente vaqueiros.

Finalmente, el de la zona central, que los sos componentes son, fundamentalmente, los mesmos con llixeros cambeos.

memoria-digital-dasturies

Partes del traxe’l país femenín:

El mandil: Prinda de sobra conocida. Podía ser blancu o negru. Solía ser pequenu y guarníu de terciopelu. A él alúdese nesta copla:

Con esi mandilín blancu
y esa manera d’andar
vas ñamorando, neña,
a los mozos del llugar.
Qué guapa vienes,
qué bien te ta
la saya verde
ya’l delantal.

Usóse enforma’l mandil de llana y llinu, del que yá falemos, resultante d’un texíu de llana negro y llinu, amalgando un texíu bien vistosu. Al igual que la falda, el mandil solía llevar un adornu de tela na parte inferior, llamáu ringo-rangu:

El mandil de ringo-rangu,
¿cuántu costote,Ramona?
– Al a salida d’Uviéu
peseta menos perrona.
– Al to mandil
écha-y un ringo-rangu
que retumbe l’agua nel sable,
¡qué murniu despídese la la mio morena!

La saya: yera la falda, prinda de singular relevancia. La del traxe’l país ye prieta, verdi o encarnado, guarnida con una, dos, trés o más franxes de terciopelu. La verdi termina dacuando con una guarnición o inxertu coloráu bastante anchu. Habíales delles clases: saya de mandilete, saya colorá, y la más esterior, nomada saya de mascote.

xx-antropoloxia-nasturies

El corpiño: tamién llamáu xustiyu o cotía. Vistíu ensin mangues, ta la cintura. Abrochase por delantre con un trenzau de gordón de seda, llana o algodón que termina nuna pieza de metal nomada ferrete. Ye de pañu finu, de terciopelu negru, colloráu o verdi. A los gordones refierse esti cantar:

Los gordones que tu me disti
yeren de seda, yeren de llana…

O esti otru:

Fuisti a la siega y vinisti,
nun me traxisti gordones,
en viniendo les castañes
maldita la que me comes.

El dengue: ye una especie de pelerina o esclavina ta la metá’l llombu. Los cabos son llargos, crucien al pechu y arréyense detrás de la cintura. Dacuandu consiste nun pescuezu postizu de pañu negru con adornos de terciopelu, dependiendo d’esta pieza la mayor o menor riqueza del traxe. Si una moza presentabase na fiesta ensín esta prenda, yera mal vistu. D’ehí que les rapaces curiabenla enforma, procurando que se-y destacase bien y ribeteandola con una cinta de seda negro. Si por cualesquier causa echabase a perder, causaba-y una braera desgracia a la moza:

¡Ay madre, qué desgracia!
¡coitadina de mí siempre!
que estándome calentando
saltome una chispa’l dengue!

El refaxo: falda de bayeta collorao o mariella, xeneralmente, que’l so vuelu ta afatáu por una cinta de terciopelu negru. Una ancha lorza na so metá facía afayaizu allongar la prenda ensegún diba espoxigando la moza. Una abertura a los llaos daba pasu a la faltriquera o bolsa pa guardar el dineru.

fondo-fotografico-del-museo-dasturies

El pañuelu: ye la prenda que cubre la cabeza. Güei nun se caltien más tocáu cásique ésti. Sicasí, n’otru tiempu habíalos. Tenemos una amuesa nel que tan despectivamente comenta’l cronista de Carlos I nel viaxe qu’ésti fixo pola mariña asturiana. Dempués de desembarcar en Tazones (Villaviciosa) y narrar les incidencies, describe minuciosamente un curiosu tocáu que vio en Ribesella’l día 24 de setiembre de 1517. Volviendo al pañuelu, priéndese a pode con broches o anfileres. Ye de seda natural blanca, negra o encarnada. Llamar de campanielles por terminar en flecos llargos, de biatía el d’usu diariu y el de bobine el de los díes de fiesta. Doblase’n forma de triángulu. Diz una copla:

Tengo cuatro pañuelos
toos cuatro colloraos,
otros cuatro pretendientes
y trés vienen engañaos.

Los llabraores usen pañuelu negru, qu’arreyen por dos estremos enriba  la cabeza. Tamién usaronlu d’antiguu los llabraores de dellos llugares pa dir al campu.

El calzau: ye’l normal de la dómina. Sustitúyense los zapatos por madreñes cuando llueve, según reza’l cantar:

Yo cuando llueve
calzo madreñes,
suenen los clavos
por ente les piedres

Coles madreñes usense zapatielles d’oriyo o bayeta.

Les calces: si lleven pie (de patín), úsense con zapatos; les de peal, ensin pie, suxetes al calcañar, úsense con madreñes. Lleven alredor unes llistes verticales en zig-zag que sirven d’adornu.

llanisca

Los escarpinos: úsense con llana abatanada o estameña. Tán fechos de dos pieces, una per cada llau del pie. Abotonen pel llau de fora y lleguen ta media pierna. Usense con madreñes especiales llamaes d’escarpín.

Otros adornos:

El collar: fechu de perlles o d’acebache de Villaviciosa, yera un refileru de cuentes de trés o cuatro vueltes, faciendo honor al cantar:

Cuatro güeltes de corales
trae la fía l’alcalde.
otres cuatro traigo yo
y soy fía de mió padre.

Les arracaes: usaes poles muyeres casaes, consistíen en dos aros pequenos con o ensín perendengues. Alcuerda aquella copla quirosana del sieglu XVII:

Tengo que mercate un dengue,
un refaxo y arracaes,
pa que les moces del pueblu
al vete queden plasmaes.

Fonte:

“La artesanía popular asturiana”; Jose Manuel Feito; Ed. Ayalga Ediciones, 1997.

Torna l’asturianu:

Fernán Morán, Presidente de la Lliga Celta d’Asturies.

Semeyes ya illustraciones:

1ª.- Muyeres col traxe’l país en Sotu’l Barcu. Autor: Gofi. Fonte: Memoria Dixital d’Asturies.

2ª.- Muyeres asturianes na primer mitá del sieglu XX. Autor/a: desconocíu. Fonte: antropoloxíadasturies.blog

3ª.- Muyeres danzando. Autor/a: desconocíu. Fonte. fondu fotográficu’l Museu’l Pueblu d’Asturies.

4ª.- Muyer vistía de llanisca. Autor/a. desconocíu/a. Fonte: google.