IBERIAN CELTS

Very little is known about de early Celtic settlements in Spain and Portugal, believed to date from about 400 B.C., and these did not survive the Roman occupation as distinct political entitles, however there are two peoples in modern Spain claiming descendent  from these Celts, the Galicians and the Asturians. The Iberian Celts’ sense of identity was very much eroded by the centuries of Spanish and Portuguese rule, but recently they have begun to assert themselves once more.

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The myt than the Iberian Celts were not in fact Celts is mainly due  to the fact the Iberian Celtic Language(s), much weakened by the longer period of Roman rule, died out comparatively early, the transition to Romance dialects being complete  by about 7-800 A.D. This same transition to non-Celtic languages is very much evident in the rest of Ceilteadch however they are more fortunate in that where the original language is not still spoken it is at least fully documented and so can still be learned, this is not the case in the Iberian Ceilteadch. Some words of Iberian Celtic still survive in the vocabularies of Galician and Asturian languages (the present day languages of Galicia and Asturies) though how many items of vocabulary can be regarded as specifically Iberian Celtic is unclear as the Romance language in general adopted quite a few Celtic words , (mainly from Gaulish, this confuses the picture as Iberian Celtic was closely related to Gaulish, if not simply a Gaulish dialect) and the Celtic languages many Latin words. Galician and Asturian are themselves Romance languages though many linguists regard them as being dialects, Galician a dialect of Portuguese and Asturian a dialect of Spanish.

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The cultures of Galicia and Asturies are very much Celtic in nature. In the literary sphere the indigenous poetry, usually in quantrain, is linked firmly in style and character with classical Celtic poetry.

Musically, the Iberian Celts are very similar to Insular Celts, having their own bagpipes, the “gaitas”, as well as the more usual tamborines and drums, these instruments being used for the rich body of traditional music and dance wich represents Celtic music at its best. Amongst other facets of Iberian Celtc culture the folk art of the two nations is definitely Celtic in origin, much of it being abstract in nature.

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Despite the fact that it was in Galicia and Asturies that Christianity took refuge from the Moors (much as Christianity took refuge from the Anglo-Saxons in the British Ceilteachd) There are remains a deep-rooted   Celtic subculture in the religion of the Iberian Celts wich their mafests itself in the large emphasis placed upon the souls, for example Galician and Asturian beggers plead for offerings on behalf on the souls. Though the Catholic faith is strong, beliefs in black and white magic still persist as do beliefs in the Evil Eye (this is still strong in certain regions of Alba), wichcraft and in powers of some herbs.

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Politically the nationalist parties are not strong as (in Galicia at least) many of the more active nationalists have been forced to emigrate due to the poor economic climate, however the people of the two countries are growing more aware of their Celtic origins, for example there has been setting up of Celtic groups and movements in the Iberian Ceilteachd one of these being Lliga Celta d’Asturies (Celtic League of Asturies). Nationalism still has a long way to go but with the people of Spain now politically more aware, is certainly has great potential.

Source:

Iberian Celts, CARN 31, autum 1980; author: Paul Mosson.

VISITA REIVINDICATIVA’L CASTRU PUNTA’L CASTIELLU.

Guei, otru añu más, aconceyámonos una catarva celtes ástures pa reivindicar lo nuesu, la preservación del llar de nuesos ancestros… en definitiva, pa lluchar pol nuesu Padremoñu Hestóricu-Cultural.

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Comu toos/es sabéis, dende va cuantayá, viense denunciandu l’estau de conservación d’esti magníficu castru, mentantu l’actitú de l’Almenestración del Principau d’Asturies vien faciendo “oyíos sordos” a estes denuncies feches dende varios colectivos y partíos políticos asturianos (Asociación Cultural el Curbiru, Castrillón para Todos, FORO Asturias, Andecha Astur, l’arqueólogu Alfonso Fanjul Peraza  y, como non, la Lliga Celta d’Asturies).

El castru tien dellos horizontes arqueolóxicos espuestos al aiciu de l’erosión eólica, per un llau, y pel otru l’aición batiente del Mar Celta pel otru xenerando esbarrumbamientos de material arqueolóxicu d’importancia que tan perdiéndose ensín que-y importe a l’Almenestración.

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Comu nun pué ser d’otru xeitu, na Lliga Celta d’Asturies tornamos a organizar una visita-denuncia col oxetivu de llamar l’atención de l’Almenestración asturiano sobre esti tema y sensibilizar a la población asturianos sobre l’importancia del so Padremoñu y la necesidá de preservalu pa les xeneraciones futures.

La verdá que foi un éxitu, Alfonso Fanjul Peraza, arqueólogu, fízonos una charra “in situ” sobro’l castru, la problemática que presenta y les posibles midíes pa palialo. Amás, esti añu cuntamos tamién cola collaboración de l’Asociación el Curbiru y Castrillón para Todos y un montón de xente comprometida col so país ya’l so Padremoniu.

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A ver si l’añu que vien, aconceyamos otra vegada pa cellebrar que iguose la situación d’esti castru marítimu, segundu n’importancia dempués del de Campa Torres, poles  midíes, estensión y asitiamientu de so.

Munches gracies a toos/es per tar ehí otru añu más, ensín vosotros/es nun facemos nada… un amelgu collacios/es!!!!

Fernán Morán, Presidente de la Lliga Celta d’Asturies.

Semeyes:

1ª, 2ª y 3ª.- Visita al castru Punta’l Castiellu de Gozón de payares de 2016. Autor: Francisco Arias Aparicio.

 

EL TRAXE’L PAÍS MASCULÍN.

El calzón:

Esta prenda ta compuesta de dos pieces que, dende la cintura, de la que formen parte, ciñendo el cadril, vienen xuntase nel banduyu. Cubre por tantu dende la cintura hasta la rodía, perfeutamente cinxíu y suspendíu pola trincha’l xubón o prinda que suxetase a los costazos. Solíen ser de bayeta, pañu o llana. Dacuando usábense de tela lliso, añedir inclusive aplicaciones de pañu negru o bien escuru “remontaos”. El color solía ser prietu, ocre, mariellu, verdi o colloráu, inclusive. De cada pernil escolgaba una cadenina con una filera botones que solíen ser de cuatro clases: los llamaos de San Fernando, los coleteros, los tarabicos y los de filigrana. a estos postreros refierse la cantar:

Botones de filigrana
embutíos n’aceru,
¿cómo quies que t’escaeza
siendo tu l’amor primeru?

mozos

El chalecu o xubón:

Outra prenda que yera davezu regalu la moza. Forrábase de blancu con una guyeta:

Non te miro pal chalecu
pa quitate la guyeta,
namá te pido, mocosu,
que me deas una rempuesta.

Los mozos solteros solíen quitar la chaqueta pa dexar ver les guyetes, regalu de la moza. Los casaos sicasí:

El galán que ta nel baille
paez que ta cansáu,
que nun quita la chaqueta
anque atópese encarceláu.

El chalecu taba fechu de tres pieces, ensegún Isabel González: “dos delanteres col mesmu corte que l’actual, y l’otra l’espaldar. Solapa de picu y doble fila  botones más bien decorativos que prácticos. El espaldar engalánase con un canesú de forma triangular, col picu escontra baxo, y tres círculos en ringlera de radiu decreciente”.

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La chaqueta o chamarra:

Esta prenda tenía les mangues cinxíes a los brazos ta la muñeca ya ensin faldillas. Nun llevaba solapes. Tien pescuezu xubíu. Los botones forranse con tela’l mesmu pañu. Usábase como abrigu, emperu tamién a xeitu d’escudu, colocandola arrollada’l brazu pa detener los golpes o estacazos que menudeaben nes tradicionales engarradielles coles que solíen finar les romeríes.

La faxa:

Apolinar Rato y Hevia, nel so vocabulariu, definela como: “banda de llana de dos o trés vares de llargu, de color encarnáu, negru o moráu, que los homes arollaben y arollen a la cintura sobro’l calzón ya’l chalecu”. El so papel primordial nun yera sostener el calzón, ensinón abrigar el banduyu.

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La montera:

Ye la prenda masculina de pañu que cubre la cabeza. Ta compuesta de cuatro partes bien definíes: casquete, nala, reborde y forru. El casquete ye la pieza que cubre la cabeza. Pa confecionala córtase un pañu en tres paralelogramos más o menos anchos, según deséyese d’altor, y otres cuatru pieces de forma triangular. Los paralelogramos xuniíense polos sos anchos, formando asina’l perímetru y caláu de la cabeza. Les cuatru pieces triangulares, cosíes por ún de los sos llaos a les trés pieces qu’afaense al perímetru de la cabeza, formen la copa la prenda. El pañu suel ser gruesu y pardu. Habeíales de luxu y yeren de terciopelu prietu:

Montera de terciopelu
yá lleves acabada
per dir de nueche al molín
y venir de madrugada

Tamién de fieltru, emperu nun yera mui normal:

Montera de fieltru azúl
tráila Antón de Pericón,
la llocura nun tien cura,
¡Valgame Dios, qué razón!

Pero la más típica yera la d’una sola nala y consistía nun triangulu equilateru, que’l so llau ye la metá’l perímetru la cabeza. Si asitiabase escontra l’esquierda llamábase montera picona; si cayía sobro la cara, montera de nala cayida. La nala tenía’l mesmu color que’l casquete. el reborde asitiábase al llau opuestu de la nala, que’l so picu solía dir afatáu con una pluma. El forru anubre tol interior de la montera. Yera de bayeta o muletón. La so corte correspuende a toa una tradición sombrerera, teniendo como oxetivu primordial que la montera arme.

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Cuando nun usabase, la montera folgaba colingada del arradu, especie de percha constituyida por un palu gruesu claváu nel suelu, de dos vares d’altor, convenientemente dispuestos, onde asitiabase la prenda.

El so usu llegó hasta’l sieglu XIX revistiendo ciertos priviliegios, como’l d’entrar nel templu con ella puesta y permanecer cubiertu mientres tola ceremonia. Esti ritu cumplía sobremanera nos funerales, y tamién yera propiu del gaiteru que tocaba la misa. Usar tamién -según O. Bellmunt y F. Canella- les vilbes dalguna vegada, poniéndose la del home, como signu de l’autoridá heredera. Yera de mal gustu llevar la de picu argutu nel picu vueltu:

Voime, que lleva’l mio mah.u
la montera pico embaxu.
Vóime, qu’el mio mah.u lleva
picu embaxu la montera.

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El palu pintu:

Nun podía faltar na indumentaria masculina. El Palu Pintu yera l’arma que los mozos llevaben consigo a toes partes. Nos nuedos llucíen clavos doraos.

Fonte:

“La artesanía popular asturiana”; Jose Manuel Feito; Ed. Ayalga Ediciones, Xixón 1977.

Torna l’asturianu:

Fernán Morán, Presidente de la Lliga Celta d’Asturies.

Illustraciones y semeyes.

1ª.- Mozos asturianos col traxe tradicional asturianu actual del grupu d’etnografía y floclor Reija de Llangréu. Fonte: Google. Autor/a: desconocíu/a.

2ª.- Semeya de dos llaniscos a finales del sieglu XIX, entamu’l sieglu XX. Fonte: google. Autor/a: desconocíu/a.

3.- Semeya d’Antonio Campillo (1842), el “Tíu Casona”. Fonte: google. Autor/a: desconocíu/a.

4.- Aurelio de Llano entrevistando a un quirosanu. Fonte: “Asturias. El siglo XX en imágenes. Crónicas del s. XX”; Ed. Nobel, 2007.

5ª.- Gaiteru ya tamoborileu’n Sama, Llangréu. Fonte: google. Autor/a. desconocíu/a.

CELTIC BASE OF ASTURIAN LANGUAGE (PART I).

INTRODUCTION:

The encounter and the conflict between the old Asturian language and Latin 2000 years ago was strong for centuries, Latin being the winner and overruling the old Asturian. Nevertheless, the old Asturian resisted dying altogether as is proven by a long list of  pre-Latin  Indo-European  words that, in spite of their geographical and linguistic limitations, still exist today. Through diachronic linguistics we know that  not only these words of Latin and Spanish origin exist in Asturian, but we also find every now and then other words from languages previous to Latin in Asturies, like some pre-Celtic and Celtic words.

This linguistic study of Asturian is very important due to its archaism. Neither the Romans nor the Visigoths did away with this archaism in rural areas.  In addition to this, the study of  these expressions is rendered more important because some of these archaisms, inherited from western Hispanic Indo-European,  are only found in Asturian.

Old Asturian words have two characteristics:

1.- The linguistic limitation caused by the predominance of Latin.

2.- The endemic morphologic contamination due to the Celtic basis, as well as a pre-Indo-European basis, common to Basque as well.

CELTIC WORDS

BASTIU in Asturiano, which means ‘storm’, ‘rain’ , which can also be said as ‘bastiazu’ ,’ bastiáu’, ‘bastiada’; in augmentative, ‘bastión’, and in diminutive, ‘bastín’ has a correlation with Celtic:

Modern Irish Celtic: báisteach ( pronounced ba:stiax) which means ‘rain’.

This ‘bastiu’ from old Asturiano was limited to the ‘drizzles’ and intermittent ‘storms’ that are common in the Cantabrian. Perhaps in Celtic Asturiano, before latin was generalised, it was a word used to describe ‘rain’ in a general way,  like  the Irish ‘báisteach’.

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In summary:

Celtic Asturian: bastiu

Latin- Asturian-castellano: chuvascu, borrasca.

ARGAU (<arg-) in Asturiano, which means: ‘disarrangement’ (‘estrozu’, ‘desaguisáu’, ‘estropiciu’ ‘ruina’, ‘obra’, ‘faena’) in a immoral and negative sense.

From the same base as ‘argáu’ comes ‘argayu’ (argasus), ‘argayada’ (argaxada) “ruina montis”, ‘landslide’ (‘corrimientu de tarrén’, ‘movida de ñeve); As a verb, ‘argayar’ (argaxar). There is also the name ‘arba’ and the verb ‘arbar’, that share the same meaning as  ‘argayu’ and ‘argayar’, etc.

The etymological correlation can be found in Celtic and Hitite.

Irish Celtic: ‘argaim’, that means ‘destroy’, ‘undo’.

Hittite: hark- which means ‘destroy’, ‘undo’.

BARDA  (< bharda)  in Asturiano, which means ‘ thorn’, ‘brambles’ ‘undergrowth’ (‘espetu’, ‘escayu’, ‘maleza’. ‘Zarza’ in Spanish). In the masculine, BARDU, with the derivations of bardón and bardín, bardial and bardal, bardayu and bardayal, bardeiru andbardiu, etc. As a verb: esbardonar, desbardonar, esbardayar, desbardayar, esbardar, debardar, esbardiar, desbardiar, embardar, embardonar, embardayar, embardiar, etc.

This Indo-European word meaning ‘beard’ has an etymological correlation with Baltic, Slavic, Latin and Germanic, as well as Celtic.

Breton Celtic: ‘barf’ (beard); Lithuanian: ‘barudá’ (beard); Old Slavic ‘brada’ (beard); Russian: ‘borodá’ (beard); Latin ‘barba’.

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It appears that this ‘barda’ from old Asturian was introduced by the Celts with the meaning of ‘beard’. as we said. But the arrival of the Romans in Asturies 2000 years ago brought a word (barba, ae) with the same meaning. That’s when the fight to enforce the use of these two words began. The Latin ‘barba’ was used almost unanimously in the linguistic field of Asturies, limiting the use of the old Asturian ‘barda’  to the ‘barda terrestris’, that is, brambles and thorns.

In summary: there is an Indo-European word, ‘bharda’, ‘barba’, duplicated in Asturian.

Celtic Asturian: BARDA < bharda,  ‘barba terrestris’, in a metaphorical sense.

Latin Asturian: BARBA< bharba , ‘barba’

VELISCU (VELISCA) in Asturian, with the variants ‘viliesgu’ (viliesga), ‘velisgu’ (velisga), ‘vilisgu’ (vilisga). In Spanish, ‘ bizco’, ‘bizca’ comes from the Indo-European root “weid” (see’)+ the suffix -‘iscu’, with the negative  sense of ‘twisted’, ‘warped’, ‘backward’. Etymologically, we have the correlation ‘-d-‘ into ‘-l- ‘from the root ‘weid’. We find a connection with the Breton Celtic: ‘gwelout’-‘see’; and with the Welsh Celtic  ‘gweler’ , ‘hedge’.

This change of d > l , within the diversity of Indo-European languages, only happens in Celtic and Asturian, which proves their familiarity.

The limitation in reality of the base ‘wel-‘ in Asturian was relegated to ‘shortsightedness’. For example: Ah, Maruxa, la to nena ye velisca: ¿nun ves que tien los güeyos reviraos? (ah, Maruxa, your daughter is shortsighted: don’t you see her eyes are swerved?)

GORAR O GURAR in Asturiano  means ‘incubate’, (eggs), ‘cover’, ‘make love’, fertilise’, It has the contaminated variants of ‘ guarar’, ‘guariar’, ‘guarare’, guariare’, and ‘golar’, based on the Indo-European root “gwher-” or “gwhor-“, as the Indo-European languages do for words ended in ‘-o’.

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Breton Celtic: ‘goriñ-‘ < ‘gwhor’, with the contaminated variants ‘gwariñ’, ‘gwriñ’ and ‘goleiñ’, meaning incubate (eggs), cover (‘gorerez’ < ‘gwhor’ -hen) (‘goradur’ <  ‘gwhor ‘-incubation), etc.

Root with vocalisms in ‘e’.

The Irish ‘gorim’ and especially the Breton ‘gorñ’ with the same meanings and phonetics as in Asturiano, indicate that the Celts brought and left the term ‘gorar’ throughout Asturias.

TAR < Sta.

Irish Celtic: Ta< Sta-.

This Asturian verb (tar) and the Irish (tá) < sta (steHt, stHt), so often heard in the Indo-European languages, has a syntactic rule common to both languages with regards to questions and answers and the expressions of third person singular in the present simple.

Modern Irish Celtic: Tá Thomas sasta. (Thomas is happy)

Modern Asturian: Tá Tomás contentu . (Thomas is Happy)

Modern Irish Celtic: An bhfuit Thomas? Tá. (Is Thomas here? He is.)

Modern Asturian: ¿Tá Tomás? Tá. (Is Thomas here? He is.)

It is very clear that this root (sta, steHt, stHt), so thoroughly Indo-European, was brought to Asturies by pre-Celts (starting, < e-sta-n) and also by the Celts ( ta- < (s)ta-) before the arrival of Latin to the Cantabrian coast, enduring as the Celtic  remnant ‘TA’. Nevertheless, the arrival of the Romans in Asturies 2000 years ago caused this ‘TA’ to be absorbed by the Latin ‘sto’, ‘-as’, ‘-are’.

Source:

” The Linguistics of Pre-Roman Asturian”;  Manuel G. Menéndez Nadava.

Translation from Asturian to English:

Maritsa Solares.

Photos:

1st.- Storm in Uviéu. Source: LNE newspaper; Author: unknow.

2nd.- Autumn beard. Source: Pinterest. Author: unknow.

3rd.- Hen hatching eggs. Source: google. Author: unknow.

BANDES DE MÚSICA FOLK ASTURIANO: FELPEYU.

Felpeyu ye un grupu de música folk d’Asturies y una de les referencies na música asturiana.

Foi fundáu en 1991 en Salamanca, onde estudiaren Belles Artes los sos miembros fundacionales Ígor Medio y Ruma Barbero. Dende entós, desendolcaron una carrera musical con una bayura d’actuaciones per España, Europa y Australia.

El so primer trabayu discográficu foi’l discu homónimu Felpeyu, editáu en 1994 por Fonoastur. Pa entós, ya habíen espublizáo la maqueta Fuxide oricios (1993) y contribuyeron al recopilatoriu “V Festival de Música Folk Galega” (1993. Edicions Discográficas Galegas). Magar qu’al entamu de la so carrera desenvolvíen un repertoriu con pieces asturianes y gallegues (pola participación de los hermanos Cástor y Félix Castro), Felpeyu centróse col tiempu nos sones más averaos al repertoriu asturianu.

En 1997 apaez el so segundu discu, Tierra (Fonoastur) y enxertan una de les sos pieces del discu Felpeyu nel recopilatoriu Naciones Celtas.

En 2000 asoleyen Live Overseas (Urchin Records), discu en direutu grabáu n’Ourense pa la so xira per Australia, y en 2002 el so discu caberu Yá!.

El 24 de xunu de 2006, el grupu sufre un accidente de tráficu cuando empobinaba dende Asturies pa Cataluña, onde diben ufrir un conciertu. Nel siniestru morrieron los sos componentes Ígor Medio y Carlos Redondo (guitarra), mientres que’l restu la formación -el bodhraneru Ruma Barbero, el curdioneru Xuan Nel Expósito, los vigulineros Lisardo Prieto y Fernando Oyágüez, el gaiteru Diego Pandua y el técnicu de soníu Slaven Kolak-, sufrieron feríes de diversa gravedá.

Tres una temporada d’obligada inactividá, la banda resurde incorporando’l baxu lléctricu nes manes de Dudu Puente, quién tamién-y pondrá voz nuevo al grupu. Más alantre tendría de llegar Moisés Suárez cola guitarra acústica zarrando asina la formación esistente anguaño.

N’abril de 2008 asoleyen Canteros otra vez cola productora Tierra Discos.

Componentes:

Ruma Barbero, bodhrán; Xuán Nel Expósito, curdión; Lisardo Prieto, vigulín; Elías García, bouzouki; Diego Pangua, gaita y flauta; Luís Senén Fernández, baxu y voz; Moisés Suárez, guitarra acústica.

Álbumes:

  • Felpeyu – 1994
  • Tierra – 1997
  • Live Overseas – 2000
  • Yá! – 2002
  • Canteros – 2008

Fonte:

Wikipedia.

 

COMUNICAU – DENUNCIA DE LA LLIGA CELTA D’ASTURIES.

El castru de Podes ye’l segundu mayor castru costeru ástur depués de la Campa Torres (Xixón). Catalogáu por J.M. González nos años 60 del sieglu XX ye descritu por numberosos especialistes, daquienes resalten l’importancia de les sos dimensiones, les sos defenses, y de los  materiales que la erosión va amosando nes sos fasteres.

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Dende hai más d’una década diversos coleutivos, asociaciones y un partíu políticu tienen denunciao la situación d’emerxencia d’esti xacimientu ensín que, tal momentu, l’Almenestración del Gobiernu d’Asturies faiga daqué al respeutu pa solucionar esta situación, la d’erosión progresiva del castru por aiciu de l’aición del mar, que devengará na pérdida irrecuperable d’elementos arqueolóxicos qu’entovía tan ensín estudiar, valorar y catalogar.

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Pola información de la que dispón la Lliga Celta d’Asturies, nel añu pasau, presentáronse proyeutos privaos autofinanciaos p’actuar d’emerxencia, nun sector determinau del castru mui afeutau pola erosión y argaxos al mar, pa facer una recoyída d’elementos arqueolóxicos y proceder al so estudiu pa evitar la so desapaición ensín que pudieran estudiase enantes.

L’Almenestración denegó la propuesta d’esti proyeutu, y paéz que la Conseyería de Cultura del Principau d’Asturies nun ve la situación d’emerxencia que ta sufriendo esti xacimientu arqueolóxicu, qu’añu tres añu ta erosionándose y argayando al mar ensín que naide faiga nada pa evitalo. Lo pior de too estu, ye que con ciertes midíes cencielles ya non mui costoses podría evitase qu’Asturies perdiera una parte importante del so padremuñu hestóricu-cultural comu sedría cubrir con tierra vexetal los cortes ónde caen los niveles arqueolóxicos na parte con más riesgo de ser argayada’l mar.

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N’esi sen, dende la Lliga Celta d’Asturies, solicitamos a la Conseyería de Cultura d’Asturies que tome midíes con respeutu al caltenimientu del castru Podes de manera que garantícese la so proteición cola mayor urxencia posible.

Fernán Morán, Presidente de la Lliga Celta d’Asturies.

Semeyes:

1ª.- Castru Podes. Autor: M. Intriago.

2ª.- Materiales arqueolóxicos del xacimientu del Castru Podes argayando al mar. Autor: Fernán Morán.

3ª.- Semeya de la visita guiao al castru Podes qu’entamó la Lliga Celta d’Asturies nel 2015. Autor: M. Intriago.

NEMETOBRIGA: SACRED CITY OF THE ASTURES

Nemetobriga (30 B.C.-640 A.D.) was cited by Ptolomeus as a city or capital of the Asturian tribe of the Tiburos, one of the fourteen Asturian tribes numbered by Adolf Schulten in his work. It is also mentioned in the Antoninus itinerary as a stop between Astorga and Braga on the Roman route called Via Nova (New Route) or Route XVIII.

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Most historians localise it in what is today A Pobra de Trives or Trives Velho, in Ourense.

The etimology of these toponyms is quite clear and undoubtedly Celtic. NEMETO-BRIGA, “Sacred City/Sanctuary”, where the element ‘briga’ comes from the well-known Celtic ‘ bhrgh-‘ ([bh ]>[b], [r], >[ri], [gh], >[g]), known in the proto-Germanics “burg-“.

This toponym is found  in some  European cities with ties to Celtic culture: “Nemetacum” in Belgian Gallia, the French city of Arres; “Nemetodorum”, The French city of Nanterre; “Vernemetum”, in the English county of Nottinghamshire; “Medionemetum” in Scotland, etc.

In 1977, National Geographic magazine published a map of Celtic Europe in which Nemetobriga was cited as the main religious centre of Celtic Hispania.

Sources:

Wikipedia, Celtiberia.net, Iberiamagica.com

Translation to English:

Maritsa Solares.

Photographs:

1st.: Aerial image of the possible location of Nemetóbriga, Larouco hillfort. Author: Unknow. Source: Google.

 

NOTICE OF THE CELTIC LEAGUE OF ASTURIES

Several of our Celtic brothers and sisters from other Celtic nations have suggested that it would be nice to read our publications in English.

One of the objectives of the Celtic League of Asturies is to spread its Celtic legacy so from now on we will publish several of our articles in English so that they can be read by many more people.

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To carry out this work, we count on the inestimable collaboration of Maritsa Solares who is the person who will translate articles from the Asturian language into the English language. All members of the Asturian Celtic League are grateful for your work and collaboration Maritsa!.

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From the Celtic League of Asturies we hope that our publications are of interest to all of you.

Grettings from Asturies.

Fernán Morán, President of the Celtic League of Asturies.